Education: All Roads lead to Babylon. A look at US laws & Hammurabi
When Yah woke me up this morning I was not sure where this post would lead. As I woke up and researched what I thought He wanted, I began to Hear His Voice louder saying what to look at and what to write. I intended on giving you definitions of government and the differences between demoncrates and republicans. However, He intended for you to learn that All Roads lead to Babylon.
Who or what is Hammurabi?
HAMMURABI hăm’ ə rä’ bĭ (Akkad. Ḫammurab/pi [the god] [H]ammu is great; by some identified with AMRAPHEL, ַמְרָפֶ֣ל, of Gen 14:1, 9). Name borne by sixth king of first dynasty of Babylon and by kings of Aleppo and Kurda in early 2nd millennium b.c.
Hammurabi was son and successor of Sin-muballit and father of Samsuiluna. The widely accepted date for his reign is 1792-1750 b.c.; though this is disputed as 1728-1686 (Albright) or 1642-1626 b.c. (Goetze). He inherited a small kingdom centered about Babylon itself. According to the date-formulae of documents from his time and his own account of events given in the prologue to his Laws, he captured the cities of Uruk and Isin in his seventh year, destroyed Malgum, warred against Emutbal and attacked Rapiqum. The same sources state that between his eleventh and thirtieth regnal years he was preoccupied mainly with local affairs and the rebuilding of religious shrines, despite an uneasy truce with the neighboring city-states of Assyria and Eshnunna. The lively correspondence from this period found at Mari throws interesting light on the relative powers and is based on information from ambassadors at the court of Babylon. An emissary of Zimri-Lim, king of Mari, wrote him saying, “There is no king who is strong by himself. Ten to fifteen kings follow Hammurabi, the governor of Babylon, a like number Rim-Sin of Larsa, a like number Ibalpiel of Eshnunna, a like number Amutpiel of Qatana, and twenty follow Yarimlim of Yamhad.” In his twenty-ninth year Hammurabi won an outstanding victory over a coalition holding the E of the River Tigris and the way was open for the attack, made two years later, against his old rival Rim-Sin, king of Larsa and Emutbal to gain control of the southern cities. The balance of power was now drastically changed.
The Earliest Written Legal Code
The earliest written legal code for a government was the Code of Hammurabi, dating from 1750 BC. Hammurabi, the King of Babylon, needed to unite his disparate realm, and decided to establish common rules of conduct, commerce, and devotion to the king under a system overseen by judges. In comparison with contemporary standards, much of the code is severe: many crimes were punishable with death or corporal punishment. Nevertheless, it was remarkable for introducing the ideas that government should be subject to the law; that laws should be based on public rules, not secret or divine ones; and that law should be efficiently and fairly applied by judges.
A Time Line:
1. First city-states arise in Sumer
Sumer was a bunch of many city-states. The kings of the city-states exercised political power and religious authority. So it was a monarcy and an autocracy.
2. Sargon of Akkad Formed Empire
2334 BCE - 2279 BCE
-conquested the first city-state -empire included parts of Mesopotamia -ruled from a capital -empire included parts of Mesopotamia first person in recorded history to create a multinethnic, centrally rules empire -monarchy and autocracy, ruled in capital as a king (one person ruling) -people did not have the right to vote for leader
-Divine Right theory -Went by "An eye for an eye" method -If you did not follow the law you would be punished -Monarchy, Ruled by a king chosen by God -No right to vote for leader -Rules told people of town what there requirements were -Babylonian law code -Hammurabi activated the code -The Code consisted of 282 laws -en-scripted on big rock that was in the middle of town so everyone could see it
4.Athens Formed Direct Democracy
-Democracy -Modern Day government -social contract-the people gave the government its power to rule and in return the government had to respect the rights of the people -elected president -branches of government -developed in Athens voters were influenced to political satire -Pericles was the greatest lasting leader
5. Roman Republic Formed
-Ancient Roman civilization's government operated as a republic -Hierarchical (people were given social placement and everyone had a different ranking) -Social Contract, people gave gov. power, and gov. respects peoples rights -people voted -woman could not vote
6. Roman Empire Formed
-created through military and dividing and conquering anyone who disagreed with it (war), also well defended -new territories made Rome a very rich city - included most of what would now be considered Western Europe. -control of this big empire was through system of administration, disciplined army, and communication -Provinces were controlled by Roman governors appointed by the emperor. -and an efficient network of roads was built both to allow troops to move through the empire and to help with trade. -Taxes were raised which helped finance its army. -Diverse people and cultures became part of the Roman Empire were brought together by Roman culture and Roman ideas of government and citizenship. -formation of the Roman Empire began under the Roman Republic - formed mostly by the early Roman emperors which is a autocratic government
7.Feudalism began in Europle
-the governments of Europe were constantly under attack by nomads. -Communities did not feel that their governments were providing good protection -As the monarchs of central governments lost power a new type of government called Feudalism came into play. -Feudalism began as monarchs gave control of local territories to lords -Feudalism involved the relationship between landowners and the most powerful landowners. the most powerful provided support and protection to less powerful landowners who had enough wealth arms and horses. The less powerful landowners owed military service to the most powerful.
8.Rise of absolute monarachies
-several monarchs in western and eastern Europe grew the power of their central governments. -the kings, emperors, or sultans made sure of their position as the supreme ruler and power holder -they surrounded themselves with followers and advisers who were strong believers of an absolute ruler - those that opposed their behavior and power were explained too that they had been granted the divine right(the right of a sovereign to rule as set forth by the theory of government that holds that a monarch receives the right to rule directly from God and not from the people) of kings
9. English Civil War
1642 - 1651
-The war was mostly between the supporters of King Charles I (the Royalists) and the supporters of the rights and privileges of Parliament (the Parliamentarians). - Parliamentary victory -Royalist wanted absolute power and the divine right of kings -Parliamentarians wanted to give the Parliament supreme control over administration
10.Glorious Revolution in England
1688 - 1689
-the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the William III. - William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his rise of the English throne -resulted in the removal of James II and the establishment of William III and Mary II as joint monarchs
1775 - 1783
thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break from the British Empire to become the United States of America.
first rejected the authority of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them from overseas without representation, and then got rid of all royal officials. the colonists had declared themselves independent after a long war where Britain was forced to give independence of the United States. -wanted liberty,freedom, independence, and rights
History of the United States Government
An American political system that faithfully imitated the customs and institutions of ancient Greek democracy would be unrecognizable in many ways. For instance, it might feature the selection of senators and congressmen by a random lottery, with new members cycling through frequently.
Tribal reorganization would see Appalachian coal miners placed in the same tribe as New York stockbrokers, California tech executives, and Montana cattle ranchers. Popular referendums open to all citizens would play a significantly larger role in determining all domestic laws and foreign policy.
Of course, this system would also exclude women and immigrants entirely, and allow citizens to exile unpopular leaders—ideas that seem very un-democratic today.
Thomas Paine and other founding fathers admired the ancient Greeks, but they also feared the consequences of such radically direct democracy. As James Madison wrote in Federalist 55, “In all very numerous assemblies, of whatever characters composed, passion never fails to wrest the scepter from reason.”
The U.S. Supreme Court building features Hammurabi on the marble carvings of historic lawgivers that lines the south wall of the courtroom.
Although other subsequently-discovered written Mesopotamian laws, including the Sumerian “Lipit-Ishtar” and “Ur-Nammu,” predate Hammurabi’s by hundreds of years, Hammurabi’s reputation remains as a pioneering lawgiver who worked—in the words of his monument—”to prevent the strong from oppressing the weak and to see that justice is done to widows and orphans.”
The Fall of Hammurabi
The coup de grace for the Hammurabi's Amorite Dynasty occurred in 1595 BC, when Babylon was sacked and conquered by the powerful Hittite Empire, thereby ending all Amorite political presence in Mesopotamia. However, the Indo-European-speaking Hittites did not remain, turning over Babylon to their Kassite allies, a people speaking a language isolate, from the Zagros mountains region. This Kassite Dynasty ruled Babylon for over 400 years and adopted many aspects of the Babylonian culture, including Hammurabi's code of laws.
In the early twentieth century, many scholars believed that Hammurabi was Amraphel, the King of Shinar in the Book of Genesis 14:1. This view has now been largely rejected, and Amraphael's existence is not attested in any writings from outside the Bible.
Because of Hammurabi's reputation as a lawgiver, his depiction can be found in several U.S. government buildings. Hammurabi is one of the 23 lawgivers depicted in marble bas-reliefs in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives in the United States Capitol. A frieze by Adolph Weinman depicting the "great lawgivers of history", including Hammurabi, is on the south wall of the U.S. Supreme Court building.
At the time of Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi Army's 1st Hammurabi Armoured Division was named after the ancient king as part of an effort to emphasize the connection between modern Iraq and the pre-Arab Mesopotamian cultures.
The Fall of Athenian Democracy
Athens was already a waning star on the international stage resting on past imperial glories, and the book argues that it struggled to keep pace with a world in a state of fast-paced globalisation and political transition.
In an effort to remain a major player in world affairs, it abandoned its ideology and values to ditch past allies while maintaining special relationships with emerging powers like Macedonia and supporting old enemies like the Persian King. This "slippery-fish diplomacy" helped it survive military defeats and widespread political turbulence, but at the expense of its political system. At the start of the century Athens, contrary to traditional reports, was a flourishing democracy. By the end, it was hailing its latest ruler, Demetrius, as both a king and a living God.
Dr. Scott argues that this was caused by a range of circumstances which in many cases were the ancient world's equivalent of those faced by Britain today. Athens, for example, committed itself to unpopular wars which ultimately brought it into direct conflict with the vastly more powerful Macedonia. Its economy, heavily dependent on trade and resources from overseas, crashed when in the 4th century instability in the region began to affect the arterial routes through which those supplies flowed.
The result was a series of domestic problems, including an inability to fund the traditional police force. In an effort to cope, Athens began to create a system of self-regulation, described as a "giant Neighbourhood Watch", asking citizens not to trouble its overstretched bureaucracy with non-urgent, petty crimes.
Ultimately, the city was to respond positively to some of these challenges. Many of its economic problems were gradually solved by attracting wealthy immigrants to Athens - which as a name still carried considerable prestige.
Democracy itself, however, buckled under the strain. Persuasive speakers who seemed to offer solutions - such as Demosthenes - came to the fore but ultimately took it closer to military defeat and submission to Macedonia. Critically, the emphasis on "people power" saw a revolving door of political leaders impeached, exiled and even executed as the inconstant international climate forced a tetchy political assembly into multiple changes in policy direction.
The question to ask is this: Is our government destined to fall next? Build upon foundations of ancient civilizaions that met their demise, one can conclude: In time all things come to an end.
Is the US the Mystery Babylon in Scripture?
Revelation 17:5 And upon her forhead was the name written, Mystery, Bable the Great, The Mother of Harlots and the Abominations of the Earth.
Revelation 18:2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Bable the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul ruach, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.
We have become a society where evil is called good and good is called evil. Just as before in Hammurabi's time and in Athens. We have Left Yahuah, we have left our morals, and values and as history has a way of repeating itself, so too shall America see destruction, unless Yah's Will is to intervene.
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