Society & Education: The History of Race and Racism-Created by Scientists Not Yah
Updated: Sep 14, 2020
We Are All the Human Race and Should Not Be defined By our Pigmentation!!! This was Never the Norm nor was it Invented by The Most High Yahuah Elohim/ The Lord God Almighty! So if Anyone says that they are a Child of the One True King and is a Racist baiting Hypocrite...they Are Not Of Yah And His Kingdom.
Census Race History
"220 Years of Census Data Proves Race is a Social Construct"
What researchers confirmed is something that minorities understand and live every day: Racial identity is complicated, and race isn't biological as the census takers might once have thought. Race was and is socially constructed by "political regimes, through intergroup relations, and via personal interaction."
Race Defined by the US Census
The racial categories included in the census questionnaire generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country and not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include racial and national origin or sociocultural groups. People may choose to report more than one race to indicate their racial mixture, such as “American Indian” and “White.” People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race.
(Why cant we embrace our culture and still be 1 human Race? Why must we Label ourselves?)
Over time, academic and popular understandings of racial and ethnic identities have changed dramatically.
Race and Ethnicity According to The National Center of Biotechnology Information
Prior to the 20th century, racial and ethnic groups were perceived as permanent, biological types. Scholars of race and ethnicity turned to Biblical passages and, later, theories of natural history to explain the origins of differences among ethnic and racial groups (Banton, 1998). They concluded that these group differences were natural and immutable.
(Its ok to study where we come from. What is Not OK is to Use this as a way of enslaving people, physically, mentally or emotionally, and definitely not financially) Cornell and Hartmann (1998) explain that the paradigms popular among social scientists in the late 19th and early 20th centuries “conceived ethnic and racial groups as biologically distinct entities and gave to biology the larger part of the responsibility for differences in the cultures and the political and economic fortunes of these groups” (Cornell and Hartmann, 1998, p. 42).
The work of Franz Boas shifted the model describing racial and ethnic differences from one stressing biology to one that focused on cultural differences (Cornell and Hartmann, 1998). This shift implied that racial and ethnic groups were dynamic rather than static. These paradigmatic changes influenced the work on race in the emerging Chicago School of Sociology, which led to an assimilationist model of racial and ethnic identities (Cornell and Hartmann, 1998). In this model, the inherent flexibility of racial and ethnic identities would eventually lead to the assimilation of distinctive racial and ethnic minority groups into the mainstream culture. However, developments in the middle of the 20th century, such as strengthening ethnic and racial conflicts, forced social scientists to reconsider the question of racial and ethnic identities.
As more and more social scientific research investigated racial and ethnic identities, it became clear that neither model was able to fully explain the complexities of these phenomena. The most prevalent current view on racial and ethnic identities is a social constructionist model (Banton, 1998; Cornell and Hartmann, 1998; Nagel, 1996). Within this system, “the construction of ethnicity is an ongoing process that combines the past and the present into building material for new or revitalized identities and groups” (Nagel, 1996, p. 19).3
(Do you see the word construction used all the time??? This is a social construction of not only the mind but of your values, morals, and culture.)
From Dismantling Racism Project Western States Center (PDF is located under the information I was able to copy and past) Race is a false classification that is not based on any real or accurate or Biblical scientific truth. In other words, the distinction we make between races, has nothing to do with scientific truth.
Race is a political construction.
A political construction is something created by people; that is not a natural development; it is constructed or created for a political purpose. The concept of race was created as a classification of human beings with the purpose of giving power to white people and to legitimize the dominance of white people over non-white people. CONTEXT In 19th Century (1800s) Europe, science and social sciences developed as never before. Associations of scientists were created, universities held conferences and debates, and dialogue between researchers increased dramatically. In England, in the early 1800s, the Ethnographic and Anthropological Societies were first established. Not only did the amount of “scholars and thinkers” multiply, they were in increasingly in conversation with each other and focusing on similar themes, such as what happens when races meet and mix.
During the 19th century, Darwin published On the Origin of the Species (1859), his book documenting the process of evolution. Darwin believed in a natural order to the development of species; the weak die off and the strong survive. Although evolutionary theory is not racist, philosophers and social scientists, used Darwin’s theory in pseudo-scientific ways to justify genocide and racism. This thinking was later called “Social Darwinism” and had brutal implications.
Throughout the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, people used different terms to explain racial differences. The classification shown below was used for well over a hundred years. The classification lacks any obvious logic and defies scientific precepts. Two of the words - Mongoloid and Caucazoid have linguistic bases that refer to geographic areas. But the last word- Negroid - refers to color. “These were not based on genetic differences, but rather on European and European American stereotypes of cultural differences and (mis)measures of physiological characteristics.” In1866, Frederick Farrar lectured on the “Aptitude of Races” which he divided into 3 groups.7
•Savage (All Africans, indigenous people, people of color with the exception of the Chinese)
•Semi-Civilized (e.g. Chinese – who were once civilized but now their society was in arrested development)
•Civilized (European, Aryan and Semitic peoples)
Eugenics is an effort to breed better human beings by encouraging the reproduction of people with “good” genes and discouraging those with “bad” genes. Eugenicists effectively lobbied for social legislation to keep racial and ethnic groups separate, to restrict immigration from Asia, Africa and southern and eastern Europe, and to sterilize people considered “genetically unfit.
The United States took Eugenics and ran with it, making it part of mainstream society. By 1928, 376 separate college courses, which enrolled 20,000 students focused on Eugenics. And an analysis of high school text books from 1914 to 1948 indicates that the majority presented Eugenics as legitimate.
Integrity Act of 1924 stands out among these laws This law included racial registration certificates as well as defining what “white” was. Within ten years similar laws were found in Nazi Germany sorting citizens by their percentage of jewish blood. Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act was not successfully challenged and struck from the books until 1967. It took Alabama until November 2000 to strike a law banning interracial marriage.
The Model Eugenical Sterilization law proposed the sterilization of the “socially inadequate” people supported in institutions or “maintained wholly or in part by public expense.” The law encompassed the “feeble minded, insane, criminalistic, epileptic, inebriate, diseased, blind, deaf, deformed and dependent” including “orphans, tramps, the homeless and paupers.” By 1914, 12 states passed sterilization laws. https://historyofeugenics.truman.edu/altering-lives/sterilization/model-law/
Current day pseudo-science continues to be popular and influence policy-makers - It is important to point out in this history lesson that similar racist “scholarship” is unfortunately alive and well today. Charles Murray and Richard Hernstein in The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. - 1990s Bestseller. In the Bell Curve they say:•The high rates of poverty that afflict certain segments of the population are determined more by intelligence than by socioeconomic background
.•They call the poor the Cognitive Underclass
•They argue that the expanding inequities of our society, wealth distribution, success in school, access to good jobs are biologically determined
.•The Bell Curve naturalizes and excuses these inequities and turns them into the inescapable symptoms of biological class fate. Associating “cognitive underclass” with every form of “frowned upon” social behavior from crime to teenage motherhood.
•Charles Murray worked for the Manhattan Institute, a conservative think tank, which supplied many of Mayor Gulliani’s policies.
•This thinking justifies harsh welfare reform policies, the criminalization of poverty - 2 million people are in jail in the U.S. (1/4 of the world’s 8 million total)
•Argues that poverty is caused by genetic inferiority
.•Restricts immigration, particularly of people of color.
•Conservatives pushing welfare reform are pushing welfare mothers to be temporarily sterilized with Norplant. From PBS on Race Race and its ideology about human differences arose out of the context of African slavery. But many peoples throughout history have been enslaved without the imposition of racial ideology. When we look at 17th century colonial America before the enactment of laws legitimizing slavery only for Africans and their descendants (after 1660), several facts become clear. 1). The first people that the English tried to enslave and place on plantations were the Irish with whom they had had hostile relations since the 13th century. 2) Some Englishmen had proposed laws enslaving the poor in England and in the colonies to force them to work indefinitely. 3) Most of the slaves on English plantations in Barbados and Jamaica were Irish and Indians. 4) Many historians point out that African servants and bonded indentured white servants were treated much the same way. They often joined together, as in the case of Bacon's Rebellion (1676) to oppose the strict and oppressive laws of the colonial government What is so striking about the American experience in creating such an extreme conception of human differences was the role played by scientists and scholars in legitimizing the folk ideas. Scholarly writers began attempting to prove scientifically that "the Negro" was a different and lower kind of human being. The first published materials arguing from a scientific perspective that "negroes" were a separate species from white men appeared in the last decade of the eighteenth century. They argued that Negroes were either a product of degeneration from that first creation, or descendants of a separate creation altogether. American intellectuals appropriated, and rigidified, the categories of human groups established by European scholars during the eighteenth century, but ignored Blumenbach's caution that human groups blend insensibly into one another, so that it is impossible to place precise boundaries around them. These are some of the circumstances surrounding the origin of the racial worldview in North America. Race ideology was a mechanism justifying what had already been established as unequal social groups; it was from its inception, and is today, about who should have access to privilege, power, status, and wealth, and who should not. As a useful political ideology for conquerors, it spread into colonial situations around the world. It was promulgated in the latter half of the 19th century by some Europeans against other Europeans and reached its most extreme development in the twentieth century Nazi holocaust.
"There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus."
"Have we not all one Father? Has not one God created us? Why then are we faithless to one another, profaning the covenant of our fathers?"
"And they sang a new song, saying, 'Worthy are you to take the scroll and to open its seals, for you were slain, and by your blood you ransomed people for God from every tribe and language and people and nation, and you have made them a kingdom and priests to our God, and they shall reign on the earth.'"
"For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, bestowing his riches on all who call on him. 13 For "everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved."
For more Information on the Census and classifications